Tuesday, May 16, 2006

Reservation and Capitation Fees-Two Sides of the Same Coin?



The Government of India has put forward a proposal to implement 27% reservation in IITs, IIMs and other universities for higher education. Last few days have seen a lot of protests against this by various student organizations especially in Delhi. There are a lot written against this in press and in blogs. Before I proceed further let me make one thing clear-I am against caste based reservation in this present form.

The system of capitation fees in professional colleges is equally bad as cast based reservations. People who are against caste-based reservations argue that it will divide the country further on religious ground. Why do the same people don’t criticize the capitation fee system as it also divides the country based on haves and have-nots.

The NIT’s (formerly REC’s) is one of the most prestigious educational institutions in India. Students have to work really hard in 12th grade to get admission to NIT’s. But few seats are earmarked as Non-Resident Indian (NRI) quota. Even if your rank in the entrance exam is very low you get admission in NIT just because your parents/ancestors have money. If NRI quota can exist in institutions like NIT, then I don’t see anything wrong with the caste based reservation. For me both are the same and both need to be abolished. A computer engineer from NIT in NRI quota or OBC quota doesn’t make any difference, doesn’t make sense?

This makes me remember one incident that happened when I was an engineering student. I studied in N.S.S College of Engineering, Palakkad. I think it was in 93-94; there was a big strike by SFI (student wing of CPI (M)) against self-financing colleges and capitation fees. There were hunger strikes, burning KSRTC buses, throwing stones on government vehicles etc and this was led in our college by the son of the then CPI(M) MLA from Vamanapuram. He got a seat there in management quota by paying capitation and he led the strike against capitation!

A girl in a family I knew in Trivandrum got over 5000 rank in Kerala Medical Entrance exam. Her parents are working in Malaysia and now she is studying in one of the medical colleges in Central Kerala. Her parents gave 25 lakhs as capitation fees. People who get even 800th rank can’t get admission and this girl just because her parents are NRI’s got a medical seat. Isn’t it ridiculous? Won’t this divide the society?

One argument for capitation fees is that cost of higher education is very high, the management needs money to keep the high standards. The money from NRI quota offsets the money needed by the management. I believe this argument is absurd. Another way to do it is to increase the fees and simplify the bank loan procedure so that students who can’t afford to pay tuition can get loans. Anyway one cannot remain jobless after passing out from institutions like NIT and can easily pay that off.


NO MORE “CASTE” BASED OR “MONEY” BASED RESERVATIONS. BOTH DIVIDE THE SOCIETY.
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32 Comments:

Blogger Ram said...

Very true, and you make good points. I have had similar thoughts re: the quotas for management people and NRI's.

While I agree with the disadvantages of having a capitation system in colleges, I am not so sure how that is aligned with the caste reservation system.Is you argument that the rich get some sort of "reservation" quota through the capitation system...and that something like the caste reservation quotas will balance it?

I think the solution needs to be a form of reservation that is based on several indices, one of which must be the financial status of the applicant too. While there is, arguably, a need to have some form of caste based reservation, how much and to what extent is debatable.

May 16, 2006 7:59 AM  
Blogger Dew Drops said...

That was a new perspective ...

These kind of reservations will make the weak only weaker and divide the society. Sections which are not eligible for the reservations will be encouraged to look down upon others, just the way it was on earlier time.

This is, a serious assault on secular India. The Indian version of divide and rule .. ;(

May 16, 2006 9:56 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Cash based reservation exists ONLY for joining a course .Have u ever heard of a Cash based reservation for a govt job ?Like if u r SC / ST or OBC
u hav a job quota ? But is there a Quota for jobs if u pay X Lakhs ?
Then how u compare these 2 ?

May 16, 2006 10:49 AM  
Blogger verbaltorture said...

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

May 16, 2006 11:48 AM  
Blogger verbaltorture said...

Yes yes yes.
Reservations are def required for the backward classes. Mainly bcz , inspite of all the equality and enlightenment we talk about, there is still an India with people BPL, no work, no access to safe drinking water and sanitation. There are people who do not know what toilets are for (really). People who live in such situations and manage to study half as well as others need that extra push. I'm all for it.

But then, privileges for idiots just because they have rich parents? That's like insulting the ones with the real intellect and the not-so-rich parents. Where's the motivation for the intelligent people to study?

Agree that caste & money based reservations should both be abolished. There should be reservations and it should be based on being backward - in terms of income of the family, access to schools, safe sanitation and such. Not just because someone is an Ezhava and someone else isn't.
And def not because someone's dad has been cleaning floors in some supermarket in Dubai for ever n ever, and nobody back home knows it, because the money keeps flowing.

May 16, 2006 11:51 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Brijesh,
I don't think NRI quota
in REC took away seats from the merit quota. As long as the NRI quota didn't eat into the general merit category who is bothered?? Please verify the accuracy of your comment. Please find the FAQ section on NITC website (http://www.web.nitc.ac.in/faq/faq.html - How to get admission in NIT Calicut under NRI Quota?). You can always say you could extend the general merit to include those two-three additional seats.. But where do we stop??

But the really concern in my opinion are the other reservation categories.. Please note that even in '95 when I joined REC, there were only 15/30 seats in ECE available to general merit (the remaining 50% went to SC/ST/OBC/OBH what ever..). Notice the OBH/OBC in the list!!!! Its already there.. Now they want more!!! I think thats the issue and it will hurt the general category quite a bit.

In my opinion, reservations based on anything, but economic background will screw up!!! A poor Brahmin/ Nair/ X'tain/ whichever category they belong are definitely in a worse situation compared to a rich guy from one of the categories (SC/ST/OB*) currently enjoying quota system. Our past experience with reservations had been that most of these seats will go to some city raised- "SC/ST/OBC/OBH" rich dad's-kid... [Fortunately, in my class the reservations did go to very deserving people (in terms of merit and economics)]..

I think reservations if given should ONLY be in education and ONLY based on financial background of the family will help people in the long run.. The assumption is that education is the ONLY way out of your difficulties.. And if you have utilized the one-time favour extended to you, you wouldn't need any further reservations anytime in your life (job/ promotions/ whatever)..

May 16, 2006 8:27 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Verbaltorture,

Let me assume that you are talking about "economically backward", without discriminating people based on caste and religion, when you mentioned "backward classes" in your comment..

May 16, 2006 8:38 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hey Anon1:
Of course there are jobs available to you if you can pay X lacs.. Why do you have to go very far.. Look at the various private colleges and schools in Kerala..

If you have money and you are ready to pay, you can get a teaching position quite easily.. They don't discrimate you based on SC/ST/OBC/OBH..

May 16, 2006 8:41 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Please clarify!! Are you OK with reservations for economically backward communities or NOT??

You said "Another way to do it is to increase the fees and simplify the bank loan procedure so that students who can’t afford to pay tuition can get loans.".

Total bull crap!!! What does simplify mean?? You are simply forgetting the real issue here.. The issue here is kids GETTING ADMITS into the institutes from economically/socially backward families and NOT getting loans. I am talking only about kids from financially backward communities.

The premise is that -- Kids from economically backward communities don't have the means to go for tuition/prep courses and buy truck loads of reference books like the kids from well-to-do families that they fall backwards when it comes to competitive exams and securing admits to professional courses... Thats were a small push could help these kids (from financially backward communities)!!

Many people have mentioned earlier in this blog and elsewhere that their parents never wanted them to be first in class, but those parents didn't think OK my son/daughter need not come first so I won't send him for Physics and mathematics tuition with those BIG names in various cities.. Let him get into these engg colleges without any tuition/prep courses all by themselves. I am right Brijesh?

The subjects of the discussion are those kids who didn't have the means (no fault of theirs) but still have to compete with the kids (mentioned in the para above) for the same seats.

If you are against capitation fee be specific rather than shout from the pulpit "NO MORE “CASTE” BASED OR “MONEY” BASED RESERVATIONS. BOTH DIVIDE THE SOCIETY."

May 17, 2006 12:16 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Please clarify!! Are you OK with reservations for economically backward communities or NOT??

You said "Another way to do it is to increase the fees and simplify the bank loan procedure so that students who can’t afford to pay tuition can get loans.".

Total bull crap!!! What does simplify mean?? You are simply forgetting the real issue here.. The issue here is kids GETTING ADMITS into the institutes from economically/socially backward families and NOT getting loans. I am talking only about kids from financially backward communities.

The premise is that -- Kids from economically backward communities don't have the means to go for tuition/prep courses and buy truck loads of reference books like the kids from well-to-do families that they fall backwards when it comes to competitive exams and securing admits to professional courses... Thats were a small push could help these kids (from financially backward communities)!!

Many people have mentioned earlier in this blog and elsewhere that their parents never wanted them to be first in class, but those parents didn't think OK my son/daughter need not come first so I won't send him for Physics and mathematics tuition with those BIG names in various cities.. Let him get into these engg colleges without any tuition/prep courses all by themselves. I am right Brijesh?

The subjects of the discussion are those kids who didn't have the means (no fault of theirs) but still have to compete with the kids (mentioned in the para above) for the same seats.

If you are against capitation fee be specific rather than shout from the pulpit "NO MORE “CASTE” BASED OR “MONEY” BASED RESERVATIONS. BOTH DIVIDE THE SOCIETY."

May 17, 2006 12:18 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

SORRY Verbaltorture.. I got your point.. Please ignore my comment.. I totally agree with you!!!

-- Giby

May 17, 2006 12:22 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Brijesh, Please delete one of the comments that I accidently duplicated!!! sorry for the trouble.. But please RETAIN one COPY!!! :)

May 17, 2006 12:24 AM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

Ram-I was making the argument that getting seat by paying money and getting seat just by your caste are both wrong and has to be stopped. I wrote this article mainly after going through the various articles criticizing caste based reservations while most of them were mum about capitation fees in higher education.

Yes I agree with you- the main consideration for reservation has to be financial status

Dew Drops- You are absolutely correct. The reservation system as it is present in India makes poor people more poorer. The benefits of reservations will be enjoyed by the rich among the so called backward caste as they have all the modern facilities at their disposal.

Anon1- I think one of the comments in this blog provides answer to ur thoughts. To add to that at least in Kerala (I am sure it is same all over India) money plays a big role in jobs. More than 90 % of Plus two teachers, private college professors who joined in the last decade, government aided school teachers pay a hefty amount for the job to organizations like SNDP, NSS, various Christian organizations, Muslim organizations which run these institutions. So anon1 u get jobs (only) if u pay money also.

Verbal torture- I fully agree with you. That is the kind of reservation India needs.

Anon2-

Thanks a lot for this great comment.

“As long as the NRI quota didn't eat into the general merit category who is bothered??”

Yes it is true but my point is at first place they are not eligible to be there. Let me make this clear. I am not bothered if it eats into general merit category or not. Take your example. You studied very hard for 12 years and got a rank above 100 and got admit for E&C. Your class mate happens to be one who got 4000 rank in entrance and still he got admit just because his father is working for a sheik. Is it fair? Isn’t injustice to people like you who have to work really hard. That is the point I am making.

Yes I also agree with you. If you are economically backward, the government should help you one time with your studies and getting a job. Once this is done that person or his kids should never be eligible for reservations. If we adopt this, we can improve the conditions of millions of poor people in India.

Anon4-Thanks for your commets.

Anon5-I think you misunderstood me. I am for reservation to economically backward people. The point I was making was that caste based reservations and money based reservations are same and ahs to be abolished.

Then “Another way to do it is to increase the fees and simplify the bank loan procedure so that students who can’t afford to pay tuition can get loans.".

Here also I think you got me wrong. I am talking about entirely different thing. Most educational institutions have NRI quota to raise money for the college functioning. What I was telling if that money is no more there how the college/school can raise money. It is by increasing the fees of students who got admission based on merit and reservation based on economic condition. When they do that poor students may not be able to pay the fees and bank loans should take care of it. That is what I meant. Hope you caught my point this time.

May 17, 2006 1:17 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Brijesh,

Did NRIs being there bother me?? No.. Why would I?? As long as they didn't affect my chances of getting to where I am and where I could be, why would I bother?? What are the qualifications of deserving candidate?? They got in through another entrance (which wasn't the mainstream but I believe is still competitive).

All my classmates (NRIs) scored between 72-75% marks, graduated along with us, got jobs just like each of us in that graduating class then why would someone say they are not deserving?? I think they are more deserving than some of my other classmates/batchmates who DID everything well (in the entrance, got into one of the good institions / branches) BUT NEVER DID anything well ever since the day of the entrance examination. Wasted talent, what else!!

I seriously think there is no point lamenting about someone else's better opportunities. Of course that's the one reason why people look forward to getting a high paying job, making money, saving money, spending money..

The one thing we can do is to utilize and make the best out of the opportunities given to us. And be less judgemental and more considerate towards the weaker sections of the society.

And probably, someone could also say, I am saying this because I got what I deserved when it mattered most!!!

May 17, 2006 3:15 AM  
Anonymous Kerala Farmer said...

ബ്രിജേഷ്‌: അതിമനോഹരങ്ങളായതും അന്തസത്തയുള്ളതുമായ ബ്ലോഗുകൾ താങ്കൾ ഉയരങ്ങളിലേയ്ക്ക്‌ എന്ന
ബ്ലോഗ്‌. ഇംഗ്ലീഷിൽ എഴുതുകയും കേരള ബ്ലോഗ്‌ റോളിൽ ഇടം പിടിക്കുവാൻ കഴിയുകയും ചെയ്ത താങ്കൽ നല്ല നല്ല ബ്ലോഗുകൾ മലയാളത്തിലും എഴുതുമെന്ന്‌ പ്രതീക്ഷിക്കട്ടെ. അപ്രകാരം മംഗ്ലീഷിൽ കമെന്റുകൾ എഴുതുന്നതും ഒഴിവാക്കാം.

May 17, 2006 3:56 AM  
Blogger Mind Curry said...

brijesh, i have two thoughts:

1. caste based reservation has to be eliminated, and we should welcome economic support for the poor irrespective of their caste. as long as we stick to caste based systems, the casteism will grow.

2. private institutions are usually very good and necessary for our country, but there may be exceptions. we cannot simply generalise. the reason why they charge high fees/ donation/ have NRI seats is because infrastructure costs for higher education is massive. building a full fledged medical school can cost something like 50-100 crores. if government had provided adequate seats for medicine, engg or mba then things would have been different. i cite the medical education as example. some 10,000 medical graduates pass out annually, but government provides on less than 3% post grad seats, while 97% is provided by the private sector. private sector cannot offer subsidised fees TO ALL like the govt can afford to. if you see things from the other side, the 15% NRIs are paying fees to make up for the lower fees paid by the 85%.

i studied in a private medical college, but after getting in through a government conducted entrance exam. the exam was totally corrupt and i understand the same happens with all govt exams even to prestigious institutions. anyway the point is, the level of teaching and standards at most of the private colleges are good. there may be few who are not upto the mark, and that is where the govt should act and enforce minimum standards. and most of the good colleges conduct their own entrance exams to rank students for admission. this is a very good system by itself.

majority of doctors and engineers or any graduates from private colleges do extremely well. just because they might have paid a higher fees does not always mean they "bought" the seat and have low quality. thats a wrong assumption in my opinion. they could afford the education and hence got it. most others cannot, and that is a fault in our system, not the rich peoples fault. even in iim's the fees is so high that not everyone can afford to study there. that doesnt mean iim's are bad or the people who come out of their are not worth it.

being born rich is not a crime just as being born in any community or religion is not a crime.

May 17, 2006 10:32 AM  
Blogger Lib-Info-Space said...

I was reading all comments in this blog and another blogs like "Save Kerala". All are against ONLY to the Caste Based reservations. But in case of money based reservations, every body has several reasons to protect it. All reservations affects the general merit. If you find good reasons for "money" based reservations to continue, there are good reasons for "caste" based reservation too. Don't forget it. I am against to both. All reservations should go at higher education level and in appointments of professional jobs. There should not be any OBC/SC/ST quotas in Higher Education. There should not be any NRI/Payment seats in Higher Education. I agree with Brijesh Nair. Both are two sides of same coin, which affects the "Genreral Merit".

I don't think that the ongoing strikes can achieve its goals.Best to them !!

May 17, 2006 10:56 PM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

Anon6- I think you got my point wrong. I am not telling that NRI student don’t study or stuff like that. The point I am making is that NRI quota and cast based reservation are one and the same and will divide the society. I can show you many of my friends who got engineering admission through reservations getting very good jobs after engineering. So the point here is “Does both these reservations divide the society?”

Kerala Farmer-Thanks a lot!

MC- I support your first thought. But I can’t agree at all with your second thought. To take your example and explain why I cannot agree with you- You mentioned

“private sector cannot offer subsidized fees TO ALL like the govt can afford to. if you see things from the other side, the 15% NRIs are paying fees to make up for the lower fees paid by the 85%.”

First of all I don’t think government should subsidize the postgraduate studies in any field especially medicine. If one can’t afford to pay the fees he/she can take loan and study. Once they graduate you can easily pay it off. I don’t think the pay of a doctor with MD is bad in India and there is no scarcity of jobs for specialized doctors.

15% NRIs paying for 85%- I understand the cost of infrastructure and other cost. Abolish the NRI quota, double the fees for the general quota. Management can get enough money for infrastructure and all that stuff.

The point I am making in the blog is any reservation based on caste or capitation fees divides the society. Take an example. You and your friend are studying in the same class. Both got almost same rank in the PG entrance. You got into a good medical school because you can afford to pay money but the other one has to take the exam again after 1 year. Is this scenario good? It will definitely divide the people. That was the point I was making.

“being born rich is not a crime just as being born in any community or religion is not a crime” Exactly, but the problem comes when rich uses their wealth, people uses their caste and religion to get admission that they don’t deserve it becomes a crime against the fellow human beings.

Pazhangalam-You said it. It is exactly what I want to convey through my blog. Thanks

May 18, 2006 2:50 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I got you right, Brijesh.. I clearly said, it is not one and the same because in the caste based case it takes away opportunities from general category.

I am asking you why bother, IF the NRI category did not affect the chances of a student from the general merit to get the seat he deserved, ?? If that NRI guy is NOT deserving (to quote Brijesh himself), he will finally end up paying more money and find himself in deep shit, totally screwed and struggling to get himself out if that mess.. Doesn't the rich guy have rights to even waste his dad's hard earned money.

I am totally against people judging who is deserving and who is not.. Thats the way every day life is.. Some people are just there at the right place, at the right time with the right person.

You might find a dumb-f*&^ in your next cubicle at your work place.. You might wonder how he got in, with credentials much worse than yours. Did he being there affect your chances of getting the job?? Who knows who cares!!!

In my opinion do not take things too personally and try your best and hope for the best rather than be cry-babies!!

May 18, 2006 8:05 AM  
Blogger Beau Peep said...

I completely agree with you. As you have read in my post Brijesh, this is a move backwards. With the present generation feeling so bad about the present state of affairs in the country, it is bound to be reflected in coming generation because of this new apartheid system being perpetrated by the current regime.

The class division is too big in India. Your story on the medical student just proves it that merit notwithstanding, money and now caste is what matters most in order to gain a few things in this country.

Needless to say, the 800 ranker needed the seat more than the 5000 ranker, yet she was deprived!

Anyway, coming back to the reservation issue, the current move by Arjun and the UPA government along with the 'outside supporters' is despicable indeed!

Thanks again for visiting my blog and reading my post.

May 18, 2006 4:29 PM  
Blogger Rakesh said...

brijesh...

its a really healthy debate here and kudos to you for bringing out a different perspective.

For others interested on the topic, here are a bunch of other links on Reservations

May 19, 2006 7:10 AM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

May 19, 2006 7:45 AM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

Anon7-The point is NRI seats can also be allocated as merit seats so that more seats are available in the merit category.
Rakesh-Thanks for the link.
Beau Peep – There is no doubt in my mind that reservations will divide India further.

May 19, 2006 7:46 AM  
Blogger Mayank said...

Its nice to see indians sitting in US, yet deeply worrieed about the state of affairs of their homeland, as your blog indicates. You seem to have a keen interest in politics.

On the issue of reservations, NRI quotas help the govt. raise some of the funds required for education. we may not realise it but every engg seat is heavily subsidised. and the quota is generally never more than 5%. in some places this is over and above the normal intake. I do not support this reservation per se, but the institutes also need money to provide students with the best facilities.

The solution govt. is offering 4 the current situation,i.e. increase in seats is not feasible. Most of the colleges do not have adequate funds/ infrastructure to absorb that kind of increase instudents.

May 19, 2006 7:52 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I knew you would pull out that trick sometime.. I had mentioned about it in my very first post.. Government cannot add seats without bearing the overhead.. In state collges the fees per year was around 2000Rs in 1995 and 3500Rs in RECs.. Complete B.Tech for 10000 Rs.. thats just 220 dollars at the current dollar rates.. The NRI seats on the other hand was 5000$ per year (20000$ for the B.Tech or about 10 lac Rs).. Compare the two.. They were extra money for theinstitute without the government having to take any extra burden..

May 20, 2006 8:56 AM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

Mayanak,
Where ever we are, the thoughts about the motherland should come first right? Then the point I was making in my blog was both caste based reservation and capitation based reservations allow non eligible students to enter higher education. I can understand the reasons behind it. Yes the solution government is proposing – to increase the number of seats-is not all feasible.

Anon8-I am not clear which was ur previous post.

Ok, take the case of REC’s. Assume an REC has a total of 100 seats in which 10% are NRI seats. So that 10 seats will fetch around 200,000$. Now assume there was no NRI quota and all the extra money comes from students admitted on merit. So now we have 100 seats and each has to pay approximately 2000$ in 4 years which is 500$ (Rs 22,500) per year. When you are getting quality education in institutions like REC can’t you pay yearly Rs 22,500 ?

May 21, 2006 9:01 AM  
Blogger Gurpreet said...

I don't feel that NRI quotas can be compared to the existing contraversy on the OBC quota. OBC quota is simply a move by the politicians who are just concerned about their own vote-bank. If they were so-concerned about it, they would have taken measures for the improvement of primary education of OBCs. These quotas would just be useful for the creamy-economically stronger section of OBCs. It would further divide the students in terms of castes. Many would be aware how an SC/ST or OBC is looked upon by general students even if they are economically strong. Its time for the government to unite people by abolishing the existing caste based reservations than to further increase them.

On the other hand, NRI quotas are just to increase the monetary gains of the institutes. Many ppl wont take a loan for their education even if they get into NITs. Its better to keep the fees low n get 4-5 paid seats there.

50% seats are proposed for caste based reservations while only 4-5 NRI seats exists (from info about colleges like TIET). NRIs seat dont really eat-up the seats of the meretious students.

May 25, 2006 2:02 PM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

Gurpreet-
“Many would be aware how an SC/ST or OBC is looked upon by general students even if they are economically strong.”

I believe it is a bad practice to classify students as SC/ST or OBC or general students. I don’t think that kind of attitude should be prevailing in campus.


I agree that NRI quota doesn’t eat into merit seat. I am talking about the student who gets admit in such a seat. My question is “Is he eligible for admission?”. Since his/her parents have money he got admit. It is similar to since he was born to a particular caste he got admit. I feel both are same.

May 26, 2006 5:42 AM  
Blogger Birju Maharaj said...

Lets agree that there is a lot left undone at the grass roots level. We definitely need quotas, but not in institues of higher learning. But I wish to draw your attention to a slightly different yet disturbing issue.

Media in this whole episode has played a biased role. It has since day one taken sides. This is not the role of the media. Media is a very important flag bearer of any democracy. It just so happens it suits me this time around and so I don't bother.

June 06, 2006 7:10 AM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

Briju,
Thanks man for visiting my blog.

Yes ur observation is perfectly correct. media is baised in the reservation issue. We heard a lot about the anti reservation side of things. But we never heard about the pro reservation side. I believe all this is due to the rush of media for sensationalising the stories.
Thanks again for visiting my blog.

June 06, 2006 8:10 AM  
Anonymous pamthree said...

nice to read a different view about reservation. I totally agree with you point
..is/her parents have money he got admit. It is similar to since he was born to a particular caste he got admit

was surprised to see the comments . many of them coudn't or did not want to club both as same.

this more or less shows how caste is deeply entrenched in our lives.

i know lot of my friends who are well educated, want economic reservations but are very much casteist.

lets hope the next generation is smarter then us.

June 08, 2006 1:49 PM  
Blogger Brijesh said...

pamthree- Yes i was also surprised to see the comments. Those who vehemently opposed reservastion was for capitation fees. This is double standards for sure.

June 10, 2006 12:58 AM  

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